What is the Capital City of Belgium?

Brussels, the capital city of Belgium, is a bustling metropolis known for its rich history, vibrant culture, and significant political influence as the de facto capital of the European Union. The city seamlessly blends the old and the new, offering a unique mix of medieval architecture and modern infrastructure.


Brussels is located in the central part of Belgium and serves as both the capital of the country and the administrative heart of the European Union. The city covers an area of 161 square kilometers (62 square miles) and is situated in the Brussels-Capital Region, which is one of the three regions of Belgium.


Brussels has a rich history that dates back to the founding of a chapel by Saint Gaugericus around 580 AD. Over the centuries, it has grown from a small settlement into a significant European city. Brussels played a central role during the Middle Ages as a trading hub and later became the capital of the Duchy of Brabant. The city has witnessed numerous historical events, including the Belgian Revolution in 1830, which led to the independence of Belgium.


As a major economic center, Brussels hosts a wide range of industries, including finance, trade, and services. It is home to many multinational corporations, international organizations, and European institutions. The city’s economy is also bolstered by a strong retail sector and a thriving tourism industry.


Brussels is renowned for its cultural diversity and vibrant arts scene. The city is famous for its festivals, museums, and culinary delights, particularly its chocolate, waffles, and beer. Brussels is also known for its comic strip heritage, with many murals and museums dedicated to this art form.

City Facts

  • Area: 161 square kilometers (62 square miles)
  • Population: Approximately 1.2 million (Brussels-Capital Region)
  • Time Zone: Central European Time (CET), UTC +1
  • Highest Mountain: The city itself is mostly flat, with the highest point being around 100 meters above sea level
  • Longest River: The Senne River, which runs through the city

Major Landmarks

Brussels is home to numerous landmarks that reflect its rich history and cultural heritage. These landmarks are key attractions for both locals and tourists, offering insights into the city’s past and present.

Grand Place

The Grand Place is the central square of Brussels and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Surrounded by opulent guildhalls, the Town Hall, and the King’s House (Maison du Roi), it is one of the most beautiful squares in Europe and a prime example of Gothic and Baroque architecture.


The Atomium is an iconic building and museum in Brussels, originally constructed for the 1958 Brussels World’s Fair (Expo 58). Designed by engineer André Waterkeyn, it represents an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times and stands at 102 meters tall. Visitors can explore its spheres and enjoy panoramic views of the city.

Manneken Pis

Manneken Pis is a famous bronze statue of a little boy urinating into a fountain. Located near the Grand Place, it has become a symbol of Brussels’ irreverent sense of humor and is often dressed in various costumes for special occasions.

Royal Palace of Brussels

The Royal Palace of Brussels is the official palace of the King and Queen of Belgium. Although it is not used as a royal residence, it serves as the administrative residence and main workplace of the Belgian monarchy. The palace is open to the public during the summer months.

Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula

This Gothic-style cathedral is one of the most important religious buildings in Brussels. It dates back to the 13th century and is dedicated to Saint Michael and Saint Gudula, the patron saints of Brussels. The cathedral is known for its stunning stained glass windows and impressive facade.

Parc du Cinquantenaire

Parc du Cinquantenaire is a large public park in the eastern part of Brussels, featuring a triumphal arch, museums, and beautifully landscaped gardens. It was created to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Belgium’s independence and is a popular spot for relaxation and recreation.

European Quarter

The European Quarter in Brussels is home to several key institutions of the European Union, including the European Commission, the European Parliament, and the Council of the European Union. The area is characterized by modern architecture and bustling activity, reflecting Brussels’ role as the capital of Europe.

Mont des Arts

Mont des Arts, or “Hill of the Arts,” is a cultural complex in central Brussels that includes museums, theaters, and landscaped gardens. It offers one of the best panoramic views of the city and is a hub for cultural events and exhibitions.

Horta Museum

The Horta Museum is dedicated to the life and work of Victor Horta, a pioneer of Art Nouveau architecture. The museum is housed in Horta’s former home and studio, showcasing his architectural designs and interior decorations.

Belgian Comic Strip Center

The Belgian Comic Strip Center is a museum dedicated to the history and art of comic strips. Located in a beautiful Art Nouveau building designed by Victor Horta, the museum features exhibitions on famous Belgian comic artists and their creations, including Tintin and The Smurfs.

Climate Overview

Brussels has a temperate maritime climate, characterized by mild summers and cool winters. The city experiences significant rainfall throughout the year, with no distinct dry season.

Month Average Temperature (°C) Average Precipitation (mm) Average Sunny Days
January 1-5 70 10
February 1-6 60 10
March 3-10 70 12
April 5-13 60 14
May 9-17 70 15
June 12-20 80 16
July 14-23 75 16
August 14-23 80 16
September 12-19 70 14
October 9-14 80 12
November 4-9 75 10
December 2-6 80 9

Other Cities as Capitals in Belgian History

According to countryaah.com, before Brussels became the permanent capital of Belgium, several other cities played significant roles as capitals at different points in history. These cities contributed to the political and cultural development of the nation.

Bruges (9th-15th Century)

Bruges was an important center during the medieval period.

Overview of Bruges

Located in the Flemish region of Belgium, Bruges is renowned for its well-preserved medieval architecture and picturesque canals. It is often referred to as the “Venice of the North.”

Historical Significance

During the 9th to the 15th century, Bruges was a major commercial and financial center in Europe. It served as a crucial hub for trade and commerce, particularly in textiles and banking.

Modern Bruges

Today, Bruges is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a popular tourist destination. The city is known for its beautiful historic center, cobblestone streets, and landmarks such as the Belfry of Bruges and the Basilica of the Holy Blood.

Ghent (15th Century)

Ghent was a significant political and economic center during the late medieval period.

Overview of Ghent

Ghent is located in the Flemish region of Belgium and is one of the country’s oldest cities. It boasts a rich history and a vibrant cultural scene.

Historical Significance

In the 15th century, Ghent was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in Europe. It played a crucial role in the political and economic landscape of the region, with a strong emphasis on textile production.

Modern Ghent

Today, Ghent is a lively university city known for its medieval architecture, museums, and cultural festivals. Key attractions include the Gravensteen castle, St. Bavo’s Cathedral, and the Ghent Altarpiece.

Leuven (18th Century)

Leuven served as a political and administrative center during the Austrian rule.

Overview of Leuven

Leuven is located in the Flemish Brabant region of Belgium and is known for its prestigious university and vibrant student life.

Historical Significance

In the 18th century, Leuven was an important administrative center under Austrian rule. The city is also home to the University of Leuven, one of the oldest universities in the world, founded in 1425.

Modern Leuven

Today, Leuven is a bustling university town with a rich cultural heritage. The city is famous for its historical buildings, including the Gothic-style Town Hall and the University Library.

Mechelen (16th Century)

Mechelen was the capital of the Low Countries during the early 16th century.

Overview of Mechelen

Mechelen is located in the Antwerp province of Belgium and is known for its historical significance and well-preserved architecture.

Historical Significance

During the early 16th century, Mechelen served as the capital of the Low Countries, which included present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The city was the residence of Margaret of Austria, the regent of the Habsburg Netherlands.

Modern Mechelen

Today, Mechelen is a charming city with a rich historical heritage. Key attractions include the St. Rumbold’s Cathedral, the Palace of Margaret of Austria, and the Mechelen Toy Museum.

Antwerp (19th Century)

Antwerp played a significant role as a commercial capital during the 19th century.

Overview of Antwerp

Antwerp is located in the northern part of Belgium and is the largest city in the Antwerp province. It is known for its port, which is one of the biggest in Europe.

Historical Significance

In the 19th century, Antwerp emerged as a major commercial and industrial center. The city’s port facilitated international trade, contributing significantly to Belgium’s economy.

Modern Antwerp

Today, Antwerp is a vibrant city known for its diamond district, fashion industry, and cultural attractions. Notable landmarks include the Cathedral of Our Lady, the Antwerp Zoo, and the Royal Museum of Fine Arts.

Country Facts

Basic Information

  • Official Name: Kingdom of Belgium
  • Population: Approximately 11.5 million
  • Area: 30,689 square kilometers (11,849 square miles)
  • Largest City: Brussels
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Official Languages: Dutch, French, German
  • ISO Country Codes: BE, BEL, 056

Government and Politics

Belgium is a federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. The country is divided into three regions: Flanders, Wallonia, and the Brussels-Capital Region. The King of the Belgians serves as the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government.


Belgium has a highly developed and diverse economy, characterized by a strong industrial base, a significant service sector, and a strategic location in Europe. Key industries include chemicals, pharmaceuticals, automotive, and food processing. The country is also known for its high-quality chocolate and beer.


Belgium boasts a well-developed education system, with compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 and 18. The country has several prestigious universities, including KU Leuven, Ghent University, and the Université catholique de Louvain.


Belgium has a high standard of healthcare, with a mix of public and private services. The country provides universal healthcare coverage to its residents through a combination of social security and private insurance.


Belgium is known for its rich cultural heritage, which includes contributions to art, literature, music, and cuisine. The country is famous for its comic strip artists, such as Hergé, the creator of Tintin. Belgium is also home to numerous cultural festivals and events throughout the year.


Belgium has an extensive and efficient transportation network, including highways, railways, and waterways. Brussels is a major hub for international travel, with Brussels Airport serving as the primary airport. The country also has a well-developed public transportation system, including buses, trams, and trains.

Natural Resources

Belgium has limited natural resources, relying heavily on imports for raw materials. However, the country has a well-developed industrial base, particularly in steel production, chemicals, and manufacturing.


Belgium is home to a variety of ecosystems, including forests, wetlands, and coastal areas. The country has several national parks and nature reserves that protect its biodiversity. Notable protected areas include the High Fens-Eifel Nature Park and the Zwin Nature Reserve.


Belgium attracts millions of tourists each year, drawn to its historic cities, cultural attractions, and natural beauty. Popular tourist destinations include Brussels, Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp. The country is also known for its beautiful countryside, picturesque villages, and scenic landscapes.


Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Belgium, with the national team, known as the Red Devils, having achieved significant success in international competitions. Other popular sports include cycling, tennis, and hockey. Belgium has produced several world-class athletes in various sports.

International Relations

Belgium plays an active role in international organizations, including the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization. The country is known for its diplomatic efforts and contributions to global peace and security.

Environmental Issues

Belgium faces several environmental challenges, including air and water pollution, waste management, and the impacts of climate change. The country is committed to addressing these issues through various policies and initiatives aimed at promoting sustainability and environmental protection.

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