What is nonverbal communication?
Non-verbal communication refers to the action of communicating without speaking and is associated with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is expressed through non-verbal communication and this, through gestures, proximity and sounds without words, manages to communicate assertively.
Types of non-verbal communication
Non-verbal communication is usually divided into 3 types or components:
- the kinésica
Kinesic nonverbal communication
Kinesic communication or body language corresponds to body gestures and looks. The word ‘kinésico’ comes from the Greek root that means ‘kinetic’ or ‘movement’, therefore it includes all the movement of the body.
Some examples of kinesic nonverbal communication are: raising the eyebrows, standing in a triangle position, breathing rapidly, gaze positions, eye positions and winks.
Proxemical nonverbal communication
Proxemical nonverbal communication refers to the distances that a person is with respect to another, communicating the relationship of proximity between them.
The American anthropologist Edward T. Hall coined the term ‘proxemic’ and defined 4 types of interpersonal distances:
- Intimate distance: 0 to 60 centimeters.
- Personal distance: 6 0 to 120 centimeters.
- Social distance: 120 to 300 centimeters.
- Public distance: more than 300 centimeters.
Proxemics depends on culture and also on how people use and respond to different types of spatial relationships, such as when someone wants to intimidate another person by approaching beyond the intimate person’s comfort zone.
Paralinguistic nonverbal communication
Non-verbal paralinguistic communication is made up of oral, auditory, tactile and visual signs.
Paralinguistic elements are wordless sound expressions such as grunting; yawning; crying; Laughter; the tone or intensity and volume of the voice; intonation, accent, and emphasis on speech; the slow, fast, or stumbled rhythm of speaking; distortions or imperfections of speech, etc.