Hidrocytoma is a skin disease. Benign tissue develops at the exits of the human sweat glands. In particular, the facial area is affected.
What is a hydrocytoma?
Hidrocytoma is a retention cyst that primarily develops on the face. This is a cyst, the formation of which develops from the occlusion of a gland. In hidrocytoma, cystic papules form at the exits of the sweat glands. The cysts are mostly transparent to slightly bluish in color and easily visible to the naked eye.
The hydrocytomas primarily develop in the area of the cheeks or the nose. It is a skin disease in which new tissue develops. This neoplasia is a benign neoplasm. The tissue is from the adenoma family. These form from the mucous membrane or the glandular tissue.
Depending on the affected sweat gland, doctors differentiate between eccrine and apocrine hidrocytoma. Even though this distinction has been refuted due to new scientific results, it is retained to this day for historical reasons. Eccrine hidrocytoma is also called sweat gland retention cyst.
When it comes to apocrine hidrocytoma, doctors speak of apocrine cystadenoma. Results of immunohistological studies show that eccrine hidrocytomas are able to produce apocrine antigens. These are messenger substances that can bind to specific antibodies and certain receptors. For this reason, the distinction between eccrine and apocrine hidrocytoma is no longer necessary.
The exact cause of hidrocytomas is not known. Multiple occurrences of hidrocytomas can occur in Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome. This is a genetic condition that causes cysts to form on the face. The cause of the syndrome has not yet been adequately researched due to the low incidence.
So far, scientists have assumed that it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. However, dominant inheritance cannot be ruled out. For hydrocytomas, this can mean that it is also a genetic disease. Doctors, on the other hand, can document and describe the process in the body very well.
The secretion slowly builds up in the gland due to the blockage of the sweat gland. A fluid-filled cyst develops along this path with a spherical appearance. Researchers continue to study the functional activity of the sweat glands. The aim is to be able to offer precise explanations for the cause of hidrocytomas. So far, doctors have assumed that genetic reasons and excessive sweating are responsible for the closure of the glands.
Symptoms, Ailments & Signs
The symptoms of hidrodcytomas include transparent to bluish cyst formations on the face. The bluish color is due to a scattering effect of the light. This is called the Tyndall effect and means that there is absolutely no blue color in the cysts. Hidrocytomas are completely painless for the patient.
This also applies if they occur in multiple numbers. The cysts are usually the size of a pinhead. Hidrocytomas usually appear on the eyelid, cheeks and both nostrils. Other parts of the body can also be affected. Owing to the force of gravity, hydrocytomas can cause the lid to flap if it occurs on the lower eyelid.
If they occur on the upper eyelid, this can also be due to the gravity to a drooping eyelidto lead. However, there are no other impairments for the eye. Vision is not impaired. Therefore, the cysts are usually distinguished by the patient because of their bluish colorcosmeticreasons uncomfortable. Provided there are no other diseases, those affected have no further complaints apart from the cosmetic reasons.
Diagnosis & disease progression
The diagnosis is made after visual contact by a doctor or dermatologist. Spontaneous healing cannot be assumed. But it can happen. This means that it cannot be assumed that the cysts will recede on their own. As a rule, without treatment, a steady increase in hydrocytomas can be expected.
The hidrocytoma primarily affects the regions of the face, resulting in reduced aesthetics in many patients. This can lead to inferiority complexes or reduced self-esteem. In most cases, those affected are ashamed of the symptoms and feel excluded from social life.
Cysts form on the face, which are blue in color. Usually, these cysts are not associated with pain. Severe symptoms occur when the cysts form directly on the eyes or on the eyelids, which automatically fold over and extremely reduce the patient’s vision. In most cases, however, there are no further complaints, so that only a cosmic intervention is necessary.
The cysts can be easily removed without complications. Surgical interventions or lasers are used for this. Scars may form after removal, but no further symptoms occur. The life expectancy of the patient is not affected by the hydrocytoma. As a rule, however, it cannot be guaranteed that the hidrocytoma will not occur again in the patient.
When should you go to the doctor?
Conspicuous changes in the complexion of the face should always be examined by a doctor. This can hide illnesses that require treatment. If the symptoms spread or increase in intensity, you should see a doctor at the latest. If lumps form, if there is swelling or ulcers on the face, the observations should be presented to a doctor. Changes in welding activity are a cause for concern.
If the changes persist for several weeks or months, a medical evaluation is required. If cysts or papules form on the face, they should be checked out by a doctor. In the case of discoloration of the skin or changes in appearance, a medical examination is urgently recommended. Changes in the eyelid or impairment of vision must be examined and clarified. If there is itching or open wounds on the face, there is an increased risk of further diseases.
Since sepsis is imminent in severe cases, a doctor should be consulted at an early stage. Independent cosmetic treatment is not recommended for a hydrocytoma. Complications or unwanted scarring can occur. It is advisable to avoid make-up and other cosmetics until you have consulted a doctor. If pain sets in or if the facial muscles are impaired, a doctor should be consulted.
Treatment & Therapy
Hydrocytomas are usually treated for cosmetic rather than health reasons. In addition, the cysts are made in functionally disturbing areas such as the eyelids. Hidrocytomas are usually removed by excision, laser treatment, or marsupialization.
Excision is a simple surgical procedure with local anesthesia. This is only used in very few cases and in the case of particularly large cysts. During treatment with a laser beam, the hidrocytomas are absorbed by the healthy tissue due to the radiation emitted by the laser. This is a thermal destruction of the cysts.
Depending on the number of hydrocytomas, several sessions may be necessary. Marsupialization is a special surgical technique that is often used for cysts the size of a pinhead. Through an incision, the cyst is carefully opened with an incision and the fluid that has accumulated inside drains out.
This is usually done with a small engraving tool. Natural drainage occurs through the puncture in the wall of the cyst. This is a therapeutic draining of the body fluid.
Outlook & Forecast
If there are no complications, the prognosis of hidrocytoma is generally good. The skin changes are less a physical disease than a cosmetic blemish. If no other symptoms occur, treatment is therefore not necessary from a medical point of view for a large number of those affected.
If the cysts change, other diseases develop as a result of the mutation. These may have a less favorable prognosis. Regular monitoring of the hidrocytoma is therefore advisable to maintain the good prognosis.
Treatment is recommended if the visual blemish of the cyst causes psychological distress. The optical changes can be cosmetically removed in various ways at the request of the person concerned. The methods used are used routinely, but are associated with the usual risks and side effects. In most cases, the patient experiences a permanent freedom from symptoms without further consequences.
If the hidrocytoma has caused a psychological sequelae, this must be included in the overall prognosis. If therapy is used, the chances of recovery are good. The healing process usually takes several months or years. Without therapeutic support, the person affected is at risk of chronic mental suffering. In addition, other life events or physical changes can intensify existing disorders and lead to a deterioration in health.
The implementation of preventive measures that promise a permanent solution is currently not known for hidrocytomas. Regular cosmetic treatments can be carried out.
In most cases, the patient with a hidrocytoma only has very few options for aftercare. In the case of this disease, the patient is primarily dependent on treatment by a doctor, as otherwise further complications or a further deterioration of the symptoms can occur.
Therefore, at the first symptoms or signs of this disease, the sufferer should consult a doctor to prevent further complications. It cannot be universally predicted whether the hydrocytoma will lead to a reduced life expectancy for those affected. In most cases, however, the symptoms can be treated with very little surgery. There are no particular complications.
After the procedure, the patient should take it easy and rest. The affected area should be well protected to prevent infection or inflammation. The affected person should also take antibiotics, which should not be taken together with alcohol. After the procedure, regular examinations by a doctor are still necessary in order to possibly detect and remove another hidrocytoma at an early stage. Further follow-up measures are not necessary for this disease.
You can do that yourself
A hydrocytoma usually does not require medical treatment. However, since the regions of the face are primarily affected by the hydrocytoma, those affected perceive the skin disease as an aesthetic blemish. A therapist should be consulted before psychological problems develop . Especially with chronic complaints, it is important to accept the conspicuous skin areas and not to be restricted by them. People who still suffer psychologically from the cysts should seek treatment.
Cysts that appear in functionally disturbing areas must also be medically clarified and, if necessary, surgically removed. The most important accompanying measure is the use of the prescribed medication and care products. In the first few days after the procedure, the affected area must not be touched or irritated in any other way, as this can trigger infections and, in the worst case, lead to permanent scarring of the skin.
In order for the wounds to heal well, those affected should take it easy and eat a healthy and balanced diet. In addition, regular check-ups with the responsible doctor are indicated. If complications arise, the doctor’s office must be consulted immediately.